ҧ蹤 õǨͧ (Preliminary Tests)

¹ : / ѹ : 2008-09-16 16:42
õǨͧ (Preliminary Tests)
. Դõʡ Doctor of Optometry Шٹ蹵ͫ;ԡ

繡õǨ÷ӧҹͧҷ仡͹ӡѴµ

شʧ :
1. ͻԹҧǴͧآҾ, ͧ( VA) function ͧͧ( кͧ)
2. Ǻ繢ž鹰ҹѺк鷴ͺ´
3. ͷӡõǨШ㹨شջѭ

Points of Notes :
1. 繡 screening ҹ ҨԹԨ¨еͧա÷ͺ׹ѹԴԷǨ
2. 㹡Ҥ ûԹͧ´Թ Ѵ NPC ͧ´Ҵ 7.3 .繤
3. 㹡÷ӵͧǴ
4. ҧ test ੾ШѺҧǧ

   - Amsler grid Ǩ 60 բ价ء ͷ VA ŧ· pinhole 䢤µբ(óչ Amsler grid prelim 繡õǨͪ㹡ԹԨ)
   - Stereopsis Ǩ, Фջѭ㹡ô ͧǨ繻Ш㹼٧
   - Amplitude of Accommodation Ǩ, Фջѭµ(early presbyopes) Фջѭ㹡ôͧǨ㹤Źͧ

5. 㹡õǨҧ back-up test Confirmatory test ҵǨԴԵͧǨ back-up test ա

Prelims test
External
Visual acuity
Versions/EOMs
Cover test
Near Point of Convergence(NPC)
Near Point of Accommodation(NPA)
Stereopsis
Color(Ishihara)
Confrontation
Pupils
Back-up/Confirmatory test
Slit-lamp
Pinhole/OKN/Alt. Acuites
Park 3 step/Lancaster screen
Hirschberg/Maddox Rod
Plus Lens Testing
NRA/PRA/BCC/Dynamic Ret.
Worth Dot
HRR/D-15
Perimetry
Pharmacological Testing


ӴѺ㹡õǨ : ӴѺͧö١ͼԴ
Ҩ蹶ʹ蹢ͧС÷õͧͷԴ繵ǡ˹ӴѺõǨ ӡõǨе positive vergence ͹õǨͧôкѨغѹͧ NPC ͹ Cover test
ӴѺõǨйࡳ㹡, ʹ ࡳ㹡÷ͧԴ Դͧ繵Ǫ¡˹õǨ͹ѧ õǨǨҧ蹵ͧ

Test
Rx
Lights
1. Visual acuity &
2. External
3. Pupils
4. Versions/EOMs
5. Cover Test &
6. NPC
7. NPA
8. Stereopsis
9. Color(Ishihara)
10. ConfrontationVF
Ƕʹ
ʹ
ʹ
ʹ





ʹ
Դҧ(ྴҹ+stand)
Դҧ+Penlight
ǻԴ
Դҧ
ԴҧͧѵطǨ
ԴҧͧѵطǨ
ԴҧͧѵطǨ
ԴҧͧѵطǨ
ԴҧͧѵطǨ
Դ੾stand


Ҵ㹡õǨ : ѡҤҴ觨㹡õǨ֧Ҵͧ, ػóͧҴзءǹʡѺ(ҧҧ, Դ)ͧ紦 мǨͧҴ
   - ء駡͹ӡõǨ ǨеͧҧҴ
   - ػóء鹷ʤ ҧµͧ紴š͹

External Observation
Ǩѧࡵ͹ѡѵ
شʧ: ͺѹ֡ԴԷ
ҧ: Դҧ֧ͧ stand ͧ褹 penlight ͧ㹨شͧô´
觷ͧǨ: 1. ҷҧ, Թ, §
                        2. þٴԴС͹Ǣͧ˹
                        3. ҡѹͧ˹, ,
úѹ֡: դǹѹ֡Ѵ觷öѴ ˹ѧҵ
ҧ: ˹ҡѹҢ٢٧һҳ 1. ˹ѧҵ : ҢҪͧԴ 10. ҫ 6. ҷءҧѹ֡ ext: Symmetric, NAP (No Apparent Pathology)

Entrance Visual Acuity
شʧ: ͺѹ֡ö㹡ͧ繢ͧͧ͡鹡͹Ѵµ ѧ㹡ѴŢͧµ͡ѡҨеͧѹѺáء駡͹Ǩҧ ¡鹡óշⴹըеͧѡҡ͹ǤѴ VA
ҧ: projector Դ俷ͧ projector һԴྴҹԴ stand ҧ ѺѴ VA Դ俷ͧstand ͧ
鹵͹õǨ: Ǩͧ繻Ѩغѹͧ ҤѴ VA 蹡͹ ҤѴ VA ҡ͹

    Դҫ, ͧ͡ҹ÷Ѵҧش쵷öҹ
        - Ҥҹ觺÷Ѵ͹¡͹ҹ÷ѴҧѴ
        - ҤҹҡҤ觺÷Ѵѹ֡ VA ͧ÷ѴźӹǹǷҹԴ 20/20-2
        - ҤҹԴҡҤ觺÷Ѵѹ֡ VA ͧ÷ѴҧѴкǡӹǹǷҹ١㹺÷Ѵ VA cc OD 20/25+2
        - Ѵ VA ҡҢ, ҫ Ѵ VA 2
        - öѹ֡: VA cc OD 20/20
                               OS 20/20
                               OU 20/20 ѹ֡ǡѹ VA cc 20/20-1, 20/20-1, 20/20
        - ӴѺͧ Ң, ҫ, 2 z

        - ӫӷ(ѹ֡зѴóշѴ VA 40.)
        - ǷӫѴ VA , (˵: cc ¶֧蹵Ǩ, sc ¶֧蹵Ǩ)
        - ҤöҹԹҪ쵨ҹкѹ֡ҧҡ쵶֧з褹ҹ
úѹ֡: VA sc OD 20/400 @ ҧҡ쵔 OD 20/400 @ 1
˵: VA Ѵ㹡óշ褹ѴШ ͧѴ
                1.ҵǨҤá
                2.ѺҴ͵ᴧ
                3.Ҫ Ǩ,

PinHole Visual Acuity: PH VAs
VA ŴŧҺ˵ͤҡ 60 Ѵ VA VA Ŵŧ ͹еǨҧ蹵ͤԹԨͧ VA Ŵŧͧҡµ١ͧŴŧ˵ ŴŧФµҡöѴҤµҡ͹ǨآҾ ͧǨآҾѹѺáͧ㹡ѴµҶä ͡Ш ҡͧ繴բͧҹ Pinholes ԹԨһѭԴҡµ ҡͧբŧͧҹ Pinholes ԹԨԴҡҸҾͧ

*Ѵ VA öѴª öԹͧԸ蹴ѧ
1. Finger Count (FC) FC @ 3´
2. Hand motion (HM)
3. Projection of Light (Proj.L) зȷҧ
4. Light Perception (LP)
5. No Light Perception (NLP)
ʹ halogen 㹡õǨ

*дѺͧͧ ءдѺͧ䢴¤µҷշش
1. VA ա 20/30 = ͧ§
2. 20/70 ֧ 20/200 = ͧ繺ҧǹ
3. µҴշش 20/400 = Һʹҧ VF < 20˚ ҧش = Һʹҧ

Pupils
ػó : ѴҴҹ 俩
ҧ : ҡԴҧͧ жʹ
1. 餹ͧ价 ͧ˹Ҩҡҹҧ ѹ֡ٻҧͧҹ ҡѴҴҹҧºҴҹҢͧ (ѹ֡´дѺ 0.5.)

2. Ŵҧͧŧ ѴҴҹ㹷 еǨ Direct Consensual responses

Direct Consensual responses
ҧ : Դྴҹ stand
1. 俩дѺµ ͧТҧ 2-3 Թҷ ѹ֡㹡˴Ǣͧҹ = Direct ṹ 0-4 (4-˴ҡ, 0-˴)

2. 俩ͧдѺµ ǹѧࡵաҧͧ ٤㹡˴Ǣͧҹ = Consensual APD (Afferent Pupillary Defect)
ҧ: Դ俷
1. 俩ͧдѺµҢҧ˹ 2-3 Թҷ
2. ѺͧաҧѹдѺµ 3-5 Թҷ ѧࡵҹҢͧ͡Ңҧ ӫ 3 ֧ 6 ͺ ѧࡵҹҢͧҹѹ֡ +APD кѹ֡ҵҢҧ˹ APD +OD APD ѧ Hippis Hippis ÷ҹ˴Т繨ѧ ѹҡû

Accommodative pupil response
ͺ餹ͧ¹зѹըҡѵҧҳ 10.ҡ˹ ҹҷ 2 ҧ˴ ѹ ѹ֡ H ҵͺʹͧ ºѹ֡Ңҡ͹еҫ ҧ ACC: H/H 㹡˴Ӥѭ ҧ駶ѹ˴ҡ ѹ֡ H 2 ACC: HH/HH
úѹ֡: : ѹ֡ҢҷѺҫ : ӵ/ӵ
ٻҧ: ѹ֡ҢҷѺҫ ٻҧ: /
Ҵ: öѹ֡ҢҷѺҫ ѺҴ㹷ҧз
L(ҧ)
Ҵ: 5mm/5mm
D()
7mm/7mm

ͺѹ֡еºѹ֡ҧѺ
OD
Ҵ: 5mm/7mm
OS
5mm/7mm

Direct Consensual responses: öѹ֡ҢҷѺҫѺ Direct Consensual
D 3+/3+
C 3+/3+

ͺѹ֡еºѹ֡ direct/consensual response
OD 3+/3+
OS 3+/3+

ACC : ѹ֡ҢҷѺҫ ACC: H/H
APD : ѹ֡ + - + ͧѹ֡Ңҧ˹ APD : +OD APD :

Extraocular Motilitys EOM ¡աҧ Versions
ͧç仢ҧ˹¡ Primary Position Second Position ¡ Cardinal field of gaze 6 ˹ ӨӡѴͧ Cardinal field ͵˹觷ա͵˹ѹҹ鹷ӧҹ㹵˹觹
鹵͹ : ¶ʹ Դҧ

1. ѵط 40.ҡдѺµҤ ͡йҢѺͧѵ͹ǵҹ ѵؤբҴ硶֧ҹҧ˭§餹ͧͧҹ
2. ͹ѵٻẺ H 2 ͹ѵت ͹价ҧҢͧǨдѺµҤ仨֧ҳ٤ ͹鹴ҹŧҹҧҳ٧ 1 ͹价ҧա֧ҳдѺ褹ش͹ŧա z
3. ͹ѵؼҹдѺµ价ҧաҧ ѧࡵҤͧ˹ǷٻẺ H ա駽觢Ңͧ(觫¢ͧǨ)
4. ֡ǴҾ͹
觷ͧǨ : յҢҧͷͧҧöͧѵآŧ ͤ֡Ǵ (pain) Ҿ͹ (diplopia)
úѹ֡ :

ҾѭѹѺáͧѹ֡Ңҧ˹лѭ ͹Ẻеء(jerky movement), nystagmus, ȷҧͧ ѹѺͧѹ֡ȷҧͺdzͧԴѭ ҹ, Һ
EOM : Full with nystagmus on far lateral gaze
EOM : Diplopia, Right eye lags on left superior gaze
EOM : S&F with pain reported in up gaze

Nystagmus Դ͹ͧҹҧش繻 ͧ仴ҹҧԹ 50˚ (ͧҡ 30˚) ¡ end-point nystagmus Ҿ㹡õǨԤسҨ餹Թ Ҩջѭ inter nuclear ophthalmoplegia ҨšҡԹ

Cover Test (C.T.)
شʧ : ͵Ǩ͹(phoria) ͵(tropia) 2 Ẻ
1. Screening Prelim ԸջԹ ,ҹҧ,ҡ
2. ԹԨ¨ prism bar 㹡Ѵ
ҧ: Դҧ,
ѵطҵǨ :
ѡâҴ˭ VA ͧҢҧ 1 ÷Ѵ
ѡâҴ˭ VA ͧҢҧ 1 ÷Ѵ
鹵͹õǨ : 2 ǹ
1. Cover-uncover Ѻе¡ Proria Tropia
2. Alternating cover test ͻԹҴзȷҧ

Cover-uncover Դҧ,
1. 餹ͧѡ÷(Ҵ˭ 1÷Ѵͧ VAҢҧ)
2. ԴҷТҧмǨѧࡵҢҧԴ ա͹ҧաҧ١Դ ʴҵҢҧͧѵ͹ = Strabismus()
3. ѧࡵ繡͹ ѧࡵҹ鹵ҷԴ͡ҡաҧ ա͹ʴҵҹöͧѵص ҡѺҹ Constant Tropia
4. ա͹ѧҡҷԴ͡ ʴҵТҧöͧѵʴ Alternating Tropia
5. ѧࡵ繡͹ͻԴТҧҧԴ = No Strabismus
Note : ѧҡҷԴ͡ѧࡵҢҧ觶١Դ ա͹ǵҢҧ鹵ǹԴҡ phoria tropia աҧͧѵ᷹ ͹ǢͧҨ͹ 2 㹷ȷҧǡѹ

Alternating cover test
1. 餹ͧѡ÷
2. ԴҢҧ˹ 2-3 ԹҷѺ任Դաҧ˹ѧࡵҢҧ觶١Դ
3. ҧҳ 2 ԹҷѺѺ ӫҧ 3 ͺ (Ѻҧ 6 )
觷ͧǨ:
ҵ͹ ͡ Ͷ١Դ¶֧ѹҧ Ͷ١Դ = ESO
ҵ͹ Ͷ١Դ¶֧ѹҧ ͡ Ͷ١Դ = EXO
ҵ͹ Ͷ١Դ¶֧ѹҧ ҧ Ͷ١Դ = Hypo
ҵ͹ ŧ Ͷ١Դ¶֧ѹҧ Ͷ١Դ = Hyper

繡͹ 繵ѡ¹˹ ͹͹价ҧǡѹ(with) ǹҧ(against)ѺԴ Ҥѧࡵѡ͹ʴ phoria ҡ(<3∆) ¡ phi movement кѹ֡ CT 繡ú͡ҡҡҷѧࡵ +phi with
úѹ֡ :

繷ѭѡɳ ´ ѧԴ辺
Tropia : R(Ң), L(ҫ), Alt.(Ѻ), Intermittent(繺ҧ) (Intermittent ѹ֡(T))
ҧ :

C.T. Դҧ,
1. ѵصӡдѺµҧҡҳ 40.ͷзӧҹͧ
2. ʧҧ餹ͧѡ÷բҴ˭ VA ͧҢҧ 1 ÷Ѵ
3. Cover-Uncover test Ը͹

͹ Alternating cover test Դ 1 ҧФ ͹ѵǧ餹ͧ 鹼ٹҧҳ 1-2 صǷ alternate cover 3 ͺ͹ѵա駷ء 3 ͺͧ÷ alternate cover test
ûԹ: Phoria: ͹ش 3∆ = Hint
6∆ = Small
9∆ = Mod.
12∆ = Large

Note: Vertical phorias ѡ硡ҷ
Tropia: Small 12-15∆
Mod. 20-25∆
Large 35∆
50∆
ѡ(T) VA Ŵŧ

Large ET
Large XT

Prism bar Ҥ : , Դҧ

1. 餹ͧѵ prism bar ҧ˹ҵҢҧ non-dominate ͵Ңҧ㹡óշ strabismus ҧ prism 㹷ȷҧ͡
2. Alt. cover test Ф ͹ prism 价 1 ͺ
3. ͹ з繵͹Ѻ㹷ȷҧç ͹Ѻ仡Ѻ
4. Ŵ prism ŧ 1 кѹ֡ҷаҹͧ prism

Near Point of Convergence (NPC) Ѵö㹡ູ(convergence) ͧ
ҧ : Դҧ,
ѵطҵǨ : ͧ´ͷФ accommodative ѧ鹤öѹշԴҾ͹ Ҵѵؤ繵ѡâҴ 20/25 ֧ 20/40 ٻҾҴѺ ҧ駻»ҡҡѺ screening Ҥջѭҡ÷ӧҹ õǨӶҤҡ 7.
鹵͹: ѹѺáú͡͹Ҥسѧз

1. ҧѵصӡдѺµҤ硹 ҳ 30.ҧҡ١ ͧ͡ѵк͡͡ѵ¡ 2 Ҿ
2. ͹ѵ١ҳ 3-4.Թҷ
3. Ҥ͡ 2 ҾشѴҧҡѵب֧⤹١繫. شҤسѧࡵ繵Ҥ͹͡仴ҹҧش Break point
4. ҡ͹ѵءѺҪ з觤͡Ҿա ش Recovery point
úѹ֡ : NPC : Break point/Recovery point
NPC : 7cm/10cm NPC: BON (Bridge of nose Ҿᵡ 2 Ҿ͹֧١) ҷ : NPC : 3cm/5cm (+/- 4cm)㹤ع ͹¡ 7cm/10cm 㹤ҡ( 20 ) 9cm ͹¡Ҷ ҡ 18cm Ҥʹ

Near Point of Accommodation (NPA) Ѵö㹡⿡ͧ
ѵط : ͹NPC , ѡâҴ 20/25 ֧ 20/40
ҧ : ͹ NPC, Դҧͧѵ
鹵͹ : ѹѺá͡͹Ҥسѧз
1. ͡ԴҢҧШͧѡ (ѡ˭ 1 ÷Ѵͧ VA )
2. ҧѵصӡдѺµҤ硹 ͡ ͧѡêѴʹҶ֡ҵ˹ѧ͡ Ǥ ͹ѵ餹(ҡҷ NPC 硹)
3. Ҥ͡ öѴ ͹ѵա Ѵҧҡѵض֧⤹١繫.
4. ӫ»ԴҢҧ
5. ش·ӫԴ 2

úѹ֡ : . Ң/ҫ/2 NPA : 9cm/9cm/8cm
ҷ : ع¡ 35 դա 12.еФҡѹ(ҧѹԹ 1D) ФҢͧ 2 Ҥôաһҳ 0.5.(0.50D) ҷѺ ҡٵâͧ Hofstetters ҹ·ش (minimum) = 15-0.25() · (average) = 18.5-0.3()
Note : ҡشҡѺ 25D (Һѹ֡ҡҹ ҡҹԴҡͺʹͧõǨҷ)

Stereopsis or Stereoacuity
ӨӡѴ: Stereopsis ͡Դ retinal disparity ·شѧöѺ¡ ֧֡֡ ÷ͺ stereopsis ͧеҧ 2 ѵبҡҧѹ
   - ѵ˹觵ͧ躹 Horopter ѵ ¹͡
   - зԴ retinal disparity ѵبйҺҧѹ cross diplopia
   - ͧšйҺҧѹ繤֡
ö֧ͧ֡ retinal disparity 硹ѺѴͧҾͻҷе Сҧ˹觢ͧ preliminary assessment 繻ªҧҡ㹡ûԹкͧ
Stereopsis Ǩ :
1. ѺҧҪվ Ǩ, ѡԹ, зҧ stereopsis ջªѺ 20 sec of arc 660. (令 20 sec of arc)
2. ѺԹԨ¤Դԡ÷ӧҹѹ 2 (binocular)
   - Constant strabismus 0 Randot Stereograph Ҩ line stereopsis
   - Intermittent strabismus ѡ Randot Stereograph ŴŧշТͧ tropia
   - Nonstrabismus ѡ Randot Stereograph Զ֧Ŵŧ лԷ
   - Amblyopia stereopsis Ŵŧ (੾ Randot Stereograph)
3. 㹡ѡҤԴ binocular
   - Suppression Ŵŧ
   - ǺõͺʹͧͧͶ
   - Ѵŷբ鹢ͧѡ
4. 㹡÷ӹ¼šѡҢͧä͹ѡ
   - stereopsis ҧҡóͧäдա
   - stereopsis 䢴Ź蹵 ѡлѺա
5. 㹡ԹԨкҷҧҧ R posterior cerebral lesions
ͺ觪㹡õǨ stereopsis :
1. 硷ء
2. ˭ǧ鹷ջѭҨҡҹ
3. ͵ͧ binocular (ö͡ A&P Binocular vision full and normal Ǩ stereopsis
Stereopsis test 2 Ẻ Contour Stereographs(Line) Randot Stereograph(RDS) Stereopsis test ͡ẺͨӡѴ繤֡Դҡ(monocular clues) motion parallax, Ҵ,
Դͧͺ : Contour Stereographs(Line) monocular clues ҧ Randot Stereograph(RDS) monocular clues (ҡ)
:
   - Wirt-circle, Lined ͧ Vectographic slide Ѻ Polaroid filters ͧѴµ
   - Random Dot E 3x5 Randot Stereographs
:
1. Stereo Fly Book, Line ( Timus Fly)
2. Randot Stereo Book, RDS&Wirt-circles
3. Stereo Butterfly Book, RD gross target&Wirt-circles
4. Stereo reindeer Book, Line
5. TNO (Anaglyph test) Plates of RDs in red&green
6. ; Frisby, Lang Plates of RDs ͧ(no dissociate glass)
鹵͹ : , Դҧ stand ͧ stereograms, зǨ 40. ´ѺµҶµ

Stereo Fly Test Book Contour stereograph 3 ǹ

1. ŧѹ˭Ѵ stereopsis ҧҺ ҡѺ 3000 sec of arc 餹Ѻաͧŧѹ ҨѺաҡ٧˹ѧ stereo ҨѺ˹ѧ stereo R L 㹪ͧҹҧ͵Ǩա suppression
2. Ҿѵ 鷴ͺ硨բҴ 400/200/100 sec of arc (120 sec of arc ҼҹѺ) ѵ˹͡Ҩҡ˹˹ѧҡ ҡⴴ ҼԴ 1 Ƕͺҹ ҼԴҡ 1 Ƕҹ
3. Wirt circle Ҩ 800 ֧ 40 sec of arc ǧѹ˹͡ شͤԴ 2 ͵Դѹ
ҷҴѧҡõǨ Flys Wirt circles 40 sec of arc Ѻ˭ ҵͺ 7 ҡ 9 60 sec of arc ҹ
úѹ֡ : ѹ֡ sec of arc ͨӹǹͷ, Ẻͺ з
ҧ Stereopsis : 50 sec of arc( 8/9 ó) Method Fly N´

Randot (RD) Book 3 ǹ
ǹ 1 8 RD 660 sec of arc
   - ͡ٻҧͧҾѹѹ˹ E + ͧ§ 1 ٻҡ 4 ٻҧ 1 ٻҡ 4 ٻҧҧͼҹǹ
ǹ 2 ٻѵѺͺ ͹Ѻͧ Fly
ǹ 3 Wirt circle 400 sec ֧ 20 sec of arc Ըա͹ Wirt circle ͧ Fly

Random Dot E Ǩ繡õǨҧҺ
- պѵâҴ 3x5 3 Demo 1 , âҧ 1 E 1
- зͺ 50. öѵ÷ E 4 ҡ 6 еǨ 1.5 ֧ 2.Ҽҹ 4 6 ա
- 㹡 screening 㹡ԹԨ Amblyopia
- ¤ͷ 50.ҨҡѺ 500 sec of arc ͧǨ 4.֧ 50 sec of arc

Color Vision Testing
ҧԹԡ :
1. ṡҺʹըҡѹ
2. ԹԨ¤ͧͧͧ
3. ṡҺʹշԴѧ
4. Թ÷ӧҹͧ macular function
5. Թö㹡¡
Ǩ:
- Ǩ(੾硼)
- ˭͹(͹Ѻö)
- ҧ俿ЪҧѾ
- ӧҹçҺ
- ٧طҹµ
- VA Ŵŧзͺ pinhole բ
Background : Ъҡ÷繵Һʹըҡѹջҳ 4% ͧЪҡ 繼¶֧ 95%; %鹡Ѻͪҵ
- ǹҡкʹ-ᴧ Һʹ¡ Deutan(ҡش 95%), Һʹᴧ¡ Protan(4%), ҺʹչԹ¡ Tritan( < 1%)
- öԴ(ҧǹպͧ) Dichomatic ( 1 2 ըҡ 3 ) ѧ Protanope = ʹᴧ Protananormalous = ᴧͧ
- ҺʹՔ 繡ӼԴ ջѭҨյҧҡ ੾ rod monochromates(· 3 )֧繵Һʹշԧ ѧҺʹ´ͧҡͧҡҧѹ
- Deutans(ʹ) Ѻʹҧǧտǧ, ժǷ, ǧᴧչӵ, չӵ, ͧ
- Protans(ʹᴧ) Ѻʹҧǧտǧ, ǧᴧ, չӵᴧ, ͧͧ
ѡɳС÷ͺ 2 Ẻ :
1. Pseudoisochromatic plates

- شŢ(ٻç)Сͺҡشյҧ
- դԴԨзѺʹö繵ŢСͺҡش
- 4 Ẻ
   1. Vanishing Figure ҵҺʹըŢ
   2. Transformed Figure Ţҧҡ
   3. Hidden Digit Figure ԨŢ
   4. Qualitatively Dx Figure Vanishing Figure ҹҡ
2. Color Arrangement tests
- յҧ ੴ͹
- ͧ§ӴѺੴ
- 㹡ԹԨաẺ plates ҷͺҹ ҡ
鹵͹ : , Դྴҹ, зͺ 50.

- 餹Դ 1 ҧ(÷ͺӷе)
- ͡ҹŢ ǷӫӡѺաҧ˹
- ѧࡵóҹԴҤҹ١ͧͶҵҺʹըŢ(٨ҡ) 蹷 2 Ishihara ԨҹŢ 8 ҵҺʹըҹԴŢ 3
- ṹ繨ӹǹ蹷ҹ١/ӹǹ蹷鷴ͺе
úѹ֡ : Color : OD 12/13     OS 11/13 Method Ishihara
ԹԨ : 鹡Ѻ Plate ǹҡö screen ջѭ-ᴧ
÷ͺЪ㹡ԹԨѡ 100-hue, Nesl Anomaloscope HRR set
ҺʹշԴѧ :
- 70% ͧäкҧ¨յҺʹ
- ǹҡչԹ(Tritan) 80% (nerve fiber layer)
- %㹤ѡ ҡѭҳҡɢͧ
- ö㹡õԴŢͧТͧä
- 㹵Թ¢ͧչԹ 㹡óҡ Ѩغѹ blue field perimetry Ǩ
- ҹ¢ͧչԹ-ͧѺͻҷҷ¹ŧ
- ҺʹշԴѧеͧͺ HRR Standard PIP vol#2

Screening Visual Fields
š field ¢Ҵ˭ҹöǨ鹷Դҡä

Confrontation
鹵͹ : ʹ͡, Դྴҹ, Դstand çҧ˹Ҥҧ 40.ǨҧҡҪǧᢹ
1. 餹Դҫ Ңͧҫ¢ͧǨ
2. ǨԴҢҢͧͧ
3. ѵضҧҧмǨ͹ field 鹷ͧмǨ
4. ͡͡áѵع
5. ӫӷءҹ˹ 90˚, 180˚駢ŧ 㹵˹ 45˚ 135˚
ººšѺ Visual field ͧǨ(ҵҧѹԹ 5˚֧ 1 ׺չӤѭ)
úѹ֡ : VF: Full To Extent of Examiners Field OD,OS by: Confrontation VF: Full to Examiners OD,OS by: Confrontation VF: Confrontation Full OD,OS

Finger Counting VF
鹵͹ : ʹ, Դҧ

1. 餹Դҫ Ңͧҫ¢ͧǨ
2. ǨԴҢҢͧͧ
3. Ǩٹ 1, 2 4 ҧҧмǨ quadrant ͧ VF Ƕ繡
   - ǵͧ͡ҡ(15˚ ֧ 20˚)
   - 俵ͧҧ
   - Ѻ͹
͵Ǩ 1 ҧѺӵաҧ
úѹ֡ : VF: FTFC (Full to Finger Count) OD,OS
Error : Ҩ VF աҷ
1. ӡõǨѧҹ
2. ѵطǨ˭Թ
3. ѵطǨҧԹ
4. ǨҺԹ
5. ѵضǨҡԹ Ҩ VF 硡ҷ
   1. ͡鹵͹ԸաáѺվ
   2. ѵطǨԹ
   3. ѵطǨ״Թ
   4. ͧѵѴͧҡդµҡ
   5. µ͡(Դ spectacle scotoma)
   6. ѵض餹ҡԹ
µ

ͻҷ

ͧµͧ

ä硡§ѺѴµ

ԭԺⵢͧ١

Թ

ôآҾͧ

͹ӵشѹ

ͺص

ͺصҪԴ vernal

õǨ

ѡҵҢ¨

͵

ᴧáԴ

šШ

ҡͧ繨ش ١

ԴáԢͧͻҷҨҡäҹ

ö㹡ͧ

͡Ш

ʹ㹵شѹ

ҵ

ѭǡѺ˹ѧҷ辺

¹ŧͧǧҡѺõ駤 : 1

¹ŧͧǧҡѺõ駤 : 2

ШҵԴ

á͹ҡ͹ᷤŹ : 1

á͹ҡ͹ᷤŹ : 2

äͻҷ : 1

͡ѡʺ

͡Ш Сѡ

ѴµСµҤµ

µǼ٧ (Presbyopia)

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